1. The Exile

Next timeline:  2. The Uprising   3. Repressive methods  4. Controversal people  5. Key events   6. Feedbacks in Art, Culture, Literature & Media   7. Our road to the EU/NATO

14/4/1931 Spanish Republic  
9/12/1931 Constitution  
1932 Dissolution of the society of Jesus  
9/9/1932 Statute of Autonomy  
1933 Electoral victory of right-wing parties  
1933 Francesc Macia's death  
1934 October Revolution  
1935 1st wave of resettlements of Poles
17/7/1936 Beginning of Spanish Civil War  
18/11/1936 Hitler and Mussolini recognize Franco's government  
5/4/1938 Negrin's republican government  
26/1/1939 Barcelona's is overrun by Franco's army  
28/3/1939 Madrid is defeated  
1/4/1939 Spanish Civil War ended  
1940 2nd wave of resettlements of Poles  
5/6/1940 Beginning of the occupation  
17/6/1940 Beginning of Soviet occupation
7/1940 Deportation of elite
6/8/1940 Soviet Union annexes Estonia
1941 Nazi Germany occupation
6/1941 The first deportation
14/6/1941 Deportation
14/6/1941 The second deportation  
1944 Deportation collaborators with Nazy German
1944 The Big Escape
1945 Resetlements of Germans
1945 The Red Army was welcomed as liberators in Hungary  
14/2/1945 Yalta Conference
1947 Operation Vistula
1948 Deportation of Ingrian Finns
22/5/1948 Spring ("Vesna")
1949 Beginning of the Years of Stalinist Depression in Hungary
1949 Foundation of the GDR
3/1949 Surf ("Priboj")
25/3/1949 Deportation of 1949
1951 Deportation of religious groups
2/10/1951 Autumn ("Osen")
1953 Stalin died  
1953 Imre Nagy introduced popular reform sin Hungary
1953 Number of the attempts to escape from GDR increased  
1955 3rd wave of resettlements of Poles  
1956 Rákosi Mátyás (the Hungarian PM) admitted his errors and resigned
10/1956 People attended László Rajk's public re-burial
16/10/1956 Hungarian students established MEFESZ (The Association of Hungarian University and College Students)
23/10/1956 The Hungarian Revolution started
24/10/1956 Budapest in ruins
28/10/1956 The first day of victory in the Hungarian Revolution
1/11/1956 Soviet tanks crossed the Hungarian border
4/11/1956 More Soviet forces invaded the country and they surrounded the airports
1957 GDR reinforced the measures of refugees  
1958 Imre Nagy was executed  
1958 Rumor of building a wall in Germany arised and people took their "last chance" for escape  
13/8/1961 Construction of a wall in Berlin
1964 Tunnel 57  
1975 A man of a SED familiy paddled with an air mattress over the Ostsee into the FRG  
1979 Two men tinkered a hot air balloon and flew with it over the GDR border
1989 Fall of the Berlin wall and reunification of Germany  
4/1990 The first free multi-party elections in Yugoslavia
5/1991 The war in Croatia began
6/6/1991 Croatia declared independence from the SFR Yugoslavia
3/3/1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from the SFR Yugoslavia
1/4/1992 The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina began
5/4/1992 The siege of Sarajevo began
14/4/1992 40 thousand refugees arrived from Bosnia and Herzegovina
7/1995 The Srebrenica massacre
14/12/1995 The Dayton Peace Agreement

2. The Uprising

Other timeline:  1. The Exile   3. Repressive methods  4. Controversal people  5. Key events   6. Feedbacks in Art, Culture, Literature & Media   7. Our road to the EU/NATO

  1930 Negrin creates the XIV Cuerpo de Ejército guerrillero  
17/6/1940 Narva agreement
23/7/1940 Statement of USA
10/1940 Anti-fascist actions in France against the Vicki government  
19/10/1940 Operation reconquest of Spain  
1941 Summerwar
1944 Guerrilla war in Lithuania
1944 Forrest brothers movement
1945 Underground youth organisations
2/1949 The Declaration on the continuity of Lithuanian Independence
1950 PCE (Spanish communist party) abandons the Guerrila method  
30/50/1953 End of Partisan war
17/6/1953 Protest against rising of the job norm and the bad provision  
10/12/1954 The Novi Sad Agreement
28/6/1956 Uprising in Poznan
1960 Passive resistance  
1960 Quico Sabaté is killed  
1962 Ramon Vila is killed  
1965 Political foundations (dissidence)
17/3/1967 The Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language
1968 Open religious resistance to occupants beginning  
8/3/1968 Students’ protests in Warsaw
1/1970 The tenth Congress of the Central Committee of the League of communists of Croatia (CK SKH)
16/12/1970 December events in Pomerania
21/12/1970 The beginning of the students’ movement
27/7/1971 The Great Serb meeting in Srb
23/11/1971 A general strike of Croatian universitarians (professors, students etc.)
29/11/1971 A meeting of the chairmanship of the SKJ’s Central Committee in Karađorđevo
1/1972 UDBA (The State Security Administration) arrest many members of the Croatian Spring
19/3/1972 „Lithuanian Catholic Church Chronicle“
14/5/1972 Protest action of Romas Kalanta
11/1976 Creation of Helsinki Group
1978 Lithuanian Liberty League (LLL)
8/1980 August events in Poland
28/10/1980 Letter of the Forty
23/8/1987 A mass meeting in Hirvepark organized by MRP-AEG
1988 The Singing revolution
17/1/1988 A group of people who want to leave the GDR demonstrate against the governmental system  
1989 The end of the "Croatian Silence" and the beginning of the Croatian battle for independence
7/5/1989 First protest against the corruption of the election in the GDR  
23/8/1989 The Baltic Chain
7/10/1989 Public demonstrations at the Alexanderplatz  
9/10/1989 Biggest Monday demonstration  
9/11/1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall  
  15/1/1990 Demonstation after the fall of the Berlin Wall  

3. Repressive methods

Other timeline:  1. The Exile  2. The Uprising   4. Controversal people  5. Key events   6. Feedbacks in Art, Culture, Literature & Media   7. Our road to the EU/NATO

23/8/1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact  
1940 Work started. The work prisoners were working there like in a Nazi concentration camp.  
21/7/1940 The Lithuanian SSR  
1943 The number of prisoners who had worked at the site reached close to six hundred.  
13/5/1944 The OZNA founded – the notorious communist secret police.  
22/09/1944 Estonia were occupated by soviet troops  
1944 – 1956 Cursed soldiers  
1944 – 1990 Repressions of the communist regime in Poland  
1944 - 1990 Censorship  
1946 Hungarian State Police State Protection Department was established.
1946 German inwards regime  
5/1946 After the OZNA was abolished the UDBA was formed – the State Security Administration – the secret police in the communist Yugoslavia era.  
1948 The Hungarian State Security Office (ÁVH) was set up. Its keyword was the fight against ’reactionary elements’ It functioned as the ‘fist of the working class’.
1948 The Roman Catholic Cardinal József Mindszenty was tried and imprisoned by the ÁVH.
1948 Foundation of the political police K5 in 1948 for the denazification  
4/1948 700 staff in April 1948  
1949 The ÁVH arrested the Hungarian Communist Party member László Rajk.
25/03/1949 Mass deportation in Estonia – 20702 people were deported to Siberia  
7/7/1949 The first group of prisoners was shipped to a political camp on the Goli otok.  
1950 Stasi (state security):
  • Controlled people
  • 90.000 full-time staff
  • 200.000 inofficial staff
    03/1950 VIII plenary session of the Estonian Communist Party against cultural elite  
    04/1950 Beginning of establishment kolkhozes (collective farms) in Estonia  
    1953 Wallenberg show trial preparations in Hungary.
    1953 Uprisings June
  • Uprising of the working class against the regime
  • Filled politcal houses
  • 20.000 soldiers stopped the protest
    1953 End of forrest brothers movment in Estonia  
    1955 - 1990 Security service  
    1956 The anger of Hungarian people turned against the officers and soldiers of ÁVO They lynched the 'ÁVO' men.
    4/1959 The monument is officially inaugurated.  
    1960 Pope John XXIII declared the underground crypt a Basilica.  
    1961 The Berlin wall
  • Wall between GDR and FRG
  • Should stop the flight of GDR population
    1963 Kádár's victory was signalled by a general amnesty for the 1956 revolutionaries.
    1966 UDBA renamed into State Security Service.  
    1968 Expulsion of students  
    1968 - 1972 Anti-Semitic campaign  
    11/1975 It became Franco’s tomb.  
    10/16/1978 Bruno Bušić, a Croatian patriot, writer and the political leader of Croatian emigration, killed in Paris.  
    1979 Baltic appeal as a public letter against Molotov-Ribbentrop pact and soviet occupation  
    1980 Letter of the Forty against increasing Russification  
    1981 Internment  
    1981 - 1983 Martial Law  
    1986 Beginning of perestroika era and liberation of regime  
    1988 The political prison Goli otok was shut down.  
    1990 UDBA was abolished, a great number of ex-members of UDBA went to work for Croatian secret services.  
    2009 The complex was closed to visitors.  
    12/2010 The Basilica opened again.  

    4. Controversal people

    Other timeline:  1. The Exile  2. The Uprising  3. Repressive methods  5. Key events   6. Feedbacks in Art, Culture, Literature & Media   7. Our road to the EU/NATO

      1920-2005 Pope John Paul II
      1929-2010 Anna Walentynowicz
      1934-2004 Jacek Kuron
      8/23/1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact  
    1940-1991 The Young Pioneer Organization of the Soviet Union  
    1940-1991 The Octobrists  
    1940-1991 The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Komsomol)  
    1940 Work started to build the valley of the  fallen. The work prisoners were working there like in a Nazi concentration camp.  
    8/23/1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact   
    6/5/1940 Beginning of the occupation   
    21/7/1940 The Lithuanian SSR   
    6/1941 1st deportation from lithuania  
    6/14-18/1941 2nd deportation from Lithuania  
    1943 Lech Walesa
    1943 The number of prisoners who had worked at the valley of the fallen reached close to six hundred.  
    1944 Beginning of Soviet occupation in Estonia    
    1945 Imre Nagy implemented the land reform
    5/22-23/1948 'Spring' („Vesna“)  
    3-4/1949 'Surf' („Priboj“)  
    3/1951 Ants Kaljurand were killed by KGB    
    10/2-3/1951 'Autumn' („Osen“)  
    mid-1950s - mid 1960s This period, called “Khrushchev’s thaw” was the start of the stabilisation of social life.
    1953 Henryka Krzywonos
    7/4/1953 Imre Nagy became the prime minister of Hungary  
    1954 Imre Nagy started his political and economic reforms  
    10/23/1956 Demonstrations started in the streets of Budapest
    11/1956 Imre Nagy and his colleagues were kidnapped by the KGB
    1958 Imre Nagy was executed
    1959 the Valley of the Fallen is officially inaugurated  
    1960 Pope John XXIII declared the underground crypt a Basilica  
    1961 Walter Ulbricht-Starting to build the Berlin Wall    
    1963 Karl Wolf Biermann-Production of the show “Berliner Brautgang” → was forbidden by the authorities → theater was closed  
    1970 New wave of russification (migrants from Soviet Union, ideological pressure)  
    1971 Willi Brandt receiving the Nobel Peace Prize  
    1973 Hans Josef Maria Globke died in Bonn  
    1975 November: The Basillica of the valley of the Fallen became Franco’s tomb  
    1980 Solidarity movement
    5/4/1980 death of Josip Broz Tito    
    3/1983 Rüütel bacame leader of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR
    6/1983 Väljas became leader of the Estonian Communist Party  
    9/25/1986 Memorandum SANU    
    winter 1986 Slobodan Milošević became a leader of the Serbian Communists  
    6/16/1989 The state funeral of Imre Nagy was held on the Heroes' Square in Budapest.  
    6/17/1989 the formation of HDZ    
    4/22/1990 first multi-party electionsin Croatia    
    5/30/1990 constituted the first multy-party Parliament in Croatia    
    8/17/1990 the beginning of log-revolution    
    5/19/1991 referendum in Croatia – 93% for independence    
    6/25/1991 promulgation of independent and sovereign Republic of Croatia    
    8/20/1991 Estonia became independent state    
    8/2/1992 first presidential elections in Croatia – Franjo Tuđman won    
    10/6/1992 Lennart Meri elected as president of Estonia    
    5/30/1994 the opening of the monument „Altar of the home land“    
    5/1/1995 the beginning of Operation „Flash“    
    8/4/1995 the beginning of Operation „Storm“    
    6/15/1997 Franjo Tuđman re-elected as Presidentof Croatia    
    3/24/1999 NATO bombing of Serbia    
    12/10/1999 death of Franjo Tuđman    
      2/12/2002 start of the trial of Slobodan Milošević in The International Court of Justice in The Hague    
    3/11/2006 death of Slobodan Milošević in prison    
    2009 complex was closed to visitors.    
    2010 December: the Basilica opened again.    

    5. Key events

    Other timelines:  1. The Exile  2. The Uprising  3. Repressive methods  4. Controversal people   6. Feedbacks in Art, Culture, Literature & Media   7. Our road to the EU/NATO

      6/4/1920 The Treaty of Trianon   
    1941 Hungary joined the Second World War   
    3/19/1944 The German Army occupied Hungary   
    1949-1956 Rákosi-Regime   
    1956-1989 Kádár-Regime   
    1961 Begin of building the Berlin wall    
    1973 Carrero is first designed as a main target for kidnapping and exchange for 150 terrorist members.  
    November 1973 an ETA cell hires a basement close to a Jesuite church where Carrero goes to a Mass service everyday.  
    1973 It is finally decided to be killed as the kidnapping seems to be almost impossible because he was named President of the Government on May 1973.    
    12/19/1973 Carrero’s murder is aborted because Henry Kissinger is visiting the US Embassy, which is very close to that place.  
    1978 Karol Wojtyla’s election to the papacy and his first pilgrimage to Poland  
    1980 The foundation of the Solidarity Trade Union  
    1983 Nobel Peace Prize for Lech Walesa  
    1985 Gorbatchov era started    
    1987 First political group the Estonian Group on Publication of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was founded by former dissidents    
    1987 The third pilgrimage of John Paul II to Poland which arose the Polish nation from apathy  
    4/1988 The Popular Front of Estonia was founded    
    6/1988 Beginning of singing revolution    
    11/16/1988 The Estonian Sovereignity Declaration was issued    
    1/1989 A language law making Estonian the official language    
    1989 Round Table Talks  
    1989 The first democratic elections to the government after which Tadeusz Mazowiecki forms the first democratic cabinet  
    3/21/1989 The Estonian Citizens' Committees were founded to restore the Republic of Estonia    
    8/19/1989 The Paneuropean Picnic    
    8/19/1989 The Paneuropean Picnic    
    8/23/1989 Hungary opened the iron curtain to Austria    
    8/23/1989 The Baltic Way    
    8/23/1989 The Baltic Way    
    9/1989 More than 1300 Eat Germas escaped via Hungary within three days    
    10/9/1989 Leipzig rallies    
    10/18/1989 Erich Honecker had to resign    
    10/23/1989 The Birth of the Hungarian Republic    
    11/9/1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall    
    1990 The First Free Elections in Hungary    
    1990-1993 Antall József became the first Hungarian Prime minister after the fall of communism    
    8/1990 Log revolution started    
    1991 The Withdrawal of Soviet Troops from Hungary    
    1/13/1991 Day of Defenders of Freedom    
    2/9/1991 The referendum for the Independence of Lithuania    
    3/1991 Conflict between Croatian and Serbian police in Plitvice the first victim of War – Croatian policeman Josip Jović    
    5/1991 Conflict between Croatian police and Serbian rebels in Borovo Selo (near Vukovar) Twelve Croatian policeman were killed and horribly massacred    
    8/20/1991 Estonia became independent state    
    8/1991 - 11/1991 Siege of Vukovar    
    9/17/1991 Lithuania's accession to the UN    
    10/15/1991 Serbs completely surrounded Vukovar    
    11/16/1991 Vukovar hero Blago Zadro killed in action    
    11/18/1991 Fall of Vukovar    
    1/15/1998 Peaceful reintegration Vukovar and other parts of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem again become an integral part of Croatia    

    6. Feedbacks in Art, Culture, Literature & Media

    Other timeline:  1. The Exile  2. The Uprising  3. Repressive methods  4. Controversal people  5. Key events   7. Our road to the EU/NATO

      1918. Lithuania formally declared independence wich was guaranteed by both Germany and Soviet Unions
      1939. End of Spanish Civil War and start of the dictatorship period until 1974  
    1944.-1990. Preventive censorship
    1945.-1956. Socialist realism
    1947. Red army soldier statue was designed
    1950s Creation of the New Song Movement  
    1956. The Hungarian-Soviet Friendship Memorial was designed
    1956. A movie titled „The Merry-Go-Round“ came out
    1956.-1989. Polish cinema in the time of communist regime
    1956.-1989. Poetry against the regime
    1960. The Liberation Memorial Stone was designed
    1961. Creation of the 16 judges  
    1966. Film “Nobody wanted to die“ (Niekas nenorėjo mirti). Film director Vytautas Žalakevičius shows the tragedy of the conflict in wich “a brother goes against the brother“.
    1966. The first Hungarian Song Festival was organized
    1968. the members of the “16 judges” get dissolved  
    1969. The Republic of Councils Monument was designed
    1969. A movie titled „The Witness“ came out
    1972. Fashion Famous designer: Bormann  
    1976.-1989. Second circulation 1976-1989
    1976.-2013. Andrzej Wajda’s film thrilogies

    1980s The „New Wave“
    1982. The movie titled Mephisto by István Szabó received an Oscar Award for the Best Foreign Movie
    1982. Movies »Der Mann auf der Mauer«  
    1983. Movies »Berlin Game«  
    1984. Movies »The Wall Jumper«  
    1984. "Antis" - Lithuanian rock band. Algirdas Kaušpėdas set up this band for architects Party, "Antis" has quickly become a major phenomenon on Lithuanian rock and Renaissance history.
    25.5.1987. The last „Youth Day“
    1987., 1988., 1989., 1996., 1997. Rock March was a rock music festival organized in various cities of Lithuania. This festivals shared the Sąjūdis‘ ideology, and openly supported the Lithuanian independence movement.
    17.10.1989. Concert of the band „Prljavo kazalište“ in the main square in Zagreb
    1991. Croatian Band Aid recorded a song „Moja domovina“ („My Homeland“)
    29.6.1993. The Opening of the Memento Park in Budapest
    1994. Start of the FC Barcelona Foundation  
      2005. Film “Forest of the Gods“. This film is directed by Algimantas Puipa, based on the Balys Sruoga novel of the same name. This is the story about one man an artis and an intellectual who was inprisoned by two brutual regimes, the Nazis and Soviets
      2006. A copy of the Stalin Monument was built in the Statue Park in Budapest

    7. Our road to the EU/NATO

    Other timeline:  1. The Exile  2. The Uprising  3. Repressive methods  4. Controversal people  5. Key events   6. Feedbacks in Art, Culture, Literature & Media

      1949. The GDR and the FRG were founded  
      1961. The Berlin wall was built  
      9.2.1962. Franco’s Government requested for the admission of Spain in the European Economic Community  
    20.11.1975. Franco died and Spanish dictatorship ended.
    26.7.1977. The Spanish Government led by Adolfo Suárez, presented the demand for EC membership for the 2nd time.
    1985. Gorbatschow became the highest man of the USSR  
    12.6.1985. Spain signed in Madrid, during the first government of Felipe Gonzalez, the third president of the Spanish democracy.
    1.1.1986. Spain enters in the EU with Portugal, forming the “Europe of the Twelve”.
    1989. French and British politicians were not pleased about the reunification of Germany  
    1993. The Copenhagem Summit
    April 1994. Hungary handed over its formal application for the EU membership in Athens
    12.3.1999. Poland joins NATO
    14.5.2001. Brussels - Croatia signed the Stabilization and Association Agreement
    December 2002. The negotiations with Hungary were closed about its EU membership in Copenhagen
    21.2.2003. Croatia applied for European Union membership
    12.4.2003. The Referendum on EU-Accession was held in Hungary
    16.4.2003. The Hungarian Prime Minister signed the Treaty of EU-Accession at the Athens Summit
    1.5.2004. Hungary became the European Union
    1.5.2004. Polish accession to EU
    18.6.2004. Croatia gained official status of candidate for EU membership
    3.10.2005. Negotiations between Croatia and the EU started
    21.12.2007. Hungary joined the Schengen-Area
    21.12.2007. Poland joins Schengen as border
    1.4.2009. Croatia joined the NATO
    January 2011. Hungary took the role of the Rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Parliament
    10.6.2011. Jose Manuel Barroso proposed closure of accession negotiations with Croatia
    1.7.-31.12.2011. Polish Presidency in the EU
    9.12.2011. Brussels – The Croatian Accession Treaty to the European Union
    22.1.2012. The referendum in Croatia for joining the European Union – 66,3% YES
    1.7.2013. Croatia became a full member of the European Union
    2014. Poland in NATO operations now
    2014. Important Polish members of the EU Parliament